Sanitation (wastewater and rainwater)
In large cities, the sanitation and the water services are often granted to the same company. The level of sanitation service is therefore often linked to the quality of drinking water service.
In rural areas, the main technical solutions are known since a long time (latrines, spreading) and are more manage by the families than by a public utility.
The population density of urban areas emphasizes the issue of bad sanitation service, which becomes then a public health and urban priority.
For sewage and liquid waste (wells, latrines, septic tanks), it is mainly the development of pit-emptying operators (mainly scavengers truck, but otherwise small collectors) that improves the sanitation service and limits the impact on groundwater.
The management of these vacuum trucks is primarily based on private actors (customers, operator) and the user demand.
However, the government has to manage the site of application of sludge. Without a proposed (and imposed) repository site by the municipality, private operators put the sludge in the closest and most economical places leading to spreading wild, associated with new risks of pollution…
The advantages of HYDROCONSEIL
The experience of HYDROCONSEIL in the field is primarily based on:
• the study and the development of networks of vacuum trucks,
• the systems of management of municipal services, including the delegation to private sector
• the regulation required to accompany the intervention of the private sector,
• the assessment of the demand and its socioeconomic characteristics
• the capacity building of appropriate techniques and practices.
Some of our recent references are shown below:
Africa: The industry of vacuum trucks in African capitals
HYDROCONSEIL conducted a study of the sector of mechanical emptying of septic tanks in six African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Senegal, Uganda and Tanzania). This comparative study of the industry of vacuum trucks is part of the research project funded by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and implemented by pS-Eau (Water-Solidarity Program) and the PDM (Municipal Development Programme ).
Thanks to its experience already gained in these countries, HYDROCONSEIL worked with consultancy firms and local consultants to achieve:
• the audit of existing businesses;
• the demand analysis of families (household surveys);
• the analysis of the strategy of the municipal authorities;
• the development of recommendations for the consolidation of the sector.
This work follows the research program on private operators of water and sanitation (SSIP, Small Scale Independent Providers) conducted in 1999-2001 on behalf of the World Bank, which has already been the subject of numerous publications (see Collignon and Vézina, Independent providers, 2001).
Haiti: Local Investment Fund for sanitation in Port-au-Prince
In Port-au-Prince, uncontrolled urbanization of many neighborhoods (whether colonized hillsides or reclaimed land on the sea – with nearly no possibility of drainage) has made the problem of sanitation very critical.
In support of a French NGO, HYDROCONSEIL’s work consisted of the preparation and implementation of a program of pilot sanitation in the poor neighborhoods of the capital:
• Identification of the demand of the different neighborhoods; prioritizing the demands, based on the interest of the proposed development in terms of public health;
• Assessment of the local capacity for project management, implementation of a program of capacity building;
• Definition of technical standards for the works to be performed;
• Development of participatory diagnostic procedures, development of sizing works (simplified procedures), development of proposals, etc...
The intervention was carried out in an approach based on Local Investment Fund (LIF), using the money that the district committees had set aside in managing the water service (these committees serve as interlocutors of the water public utility in neighborhoods).
World: Capitalization of "best practices" in terms of sanitation
This capacity building work has been conducted on behalf of the AFD (French Development Agency), and involved technical solutions as well as customary practices. It gave rise to a census and a redefinition of the most common solutions, their criteria for adaptation to different contexts and the practices which should accompany their use. The document also details the descriptions of adapted structures, such as different types of latrines, incinerators, means of collection, disposal methods, etc..